How to write an expository essay

An expository essay aims to uncover details. To put it, to uncover details means to expose something desolate. Also, discover details, or expose details made easy for the reader to understand.

Thus, an expository essay an organized educational print that probes a notion and expounds on it. Besides, gives justification, and provides everything in an easy language to ensure the idea crystal clear to the target audience.

The purpose of an expository essay

It’s a right way to check learner’s knowledge on a certain subject: because of its describe, inform, and explain form. For this reason, they are often placed at the ending of different test exams or papers.

Types of expository essays

  • Descriptive essay: this is an essay in which an author requires to depict something. It can range from an experience, situation, or person. Descriptive essays are special because they give the writer freedom to create content. To keep the reader interested in the essay provide something beautiful and exciting.
  • Process essay: the main aim of this type of essay is to tutor the reader about the studying process.
  • Comparison essay: it makes you to examine any two topics, looking for and describing their differences or similarities
  • Cause and effect essay: they are apprehensive with how or why certain things occur, and what happens as an outcome.
  • Problem or solution essay: in this instance, we have issues and are searching for solutions. It divides into a short description to the issue, and filled with details about solutions.

Steps involved in writing an expository essay

  1. Prewriting

The first step when putting down an expository essay includes critical thinking for ideas and selecting a subject. In a lot of instances, you will have some essay instructions and prompts. Additionally, you should go through the instructions to ensure you understand what the teacher requires. After having a perfect idea of what it requires to be done, you can begin looking for a right subject.

A good subject for an expository essay should not be too shallow or too wide.

The subject should be reasonable, to ensure that you select something you can express in a paper containing 5 paragraphs. Additionally, it should be significant and relevant. As a final step, select a subject that you are willing to address and one you are aware you will be capable of describing.

  1. Expository essay outline

Regardless of the sort of paper you are required to put down coming up with an outline is important. It assists to arrange your concepts and align them in a rational order. Secondly, it’s simpler when you have an outline.

An expository essay consists of five paragraphs:

  • Introduction

Hook- a question, dilemma, statement that obtains the learners curiosity.

History and context for the subject

Thesis statement

  • Main body

The first paragraph

Subject sentence precisely identifying the major talking point.

Also, justifying certainty and illustration. Reports done to prove this pronouncement.

As well as, validating certainty and illustration. Real world illustrations to justify this observation

Furthermore, pronouncement that sums up every bit from the text

  • Main body

The second paragraph

Subject sentence defining the major talking point.

Validating certainty and illustrations

Justifying fact and examples

Observation that rationally sums up every bit of the text.

  • Main body

The third paragraph

Subject sentence precisely defining the major talking point

Validating certainty and illustrations. Facts supported by science

Justifying certainty and illustrations. Statistics justifying the observation

Observation that rationally sums up every bit of the text

  • Conclusion

Put together an outline of your major concepts.

Review the paper

Join the points between your concepts or justifications and the wider subject

Spotlight the efficacy of your finding and disclose any unresolved issues

  1. Drafting

Once you have identified a subject and a conclusive outline, you can begin embarking on the initial version of the thesis. Besides, it should not be complicated to come up with a version if you go along with the outline. In addition to, you are required to connect the talking points from your outline and rationally join them in the thesis.

  1. Editing

In a careful manner, reread and revise your paper until it appears perfect. The correct way to go by proofreading and editing is to provide yourself more time after putting down the draft.

Moreover, give special focus to punctuation and grammar, and spelling.  It is always advisable to make use of grammar tools to make the process seamless and save time.

Additionally, pay attention to readability, tone, style, and clarity of your text.

  1. Revising

Cross check your expository essay and determine if it is completed for. The following should be put in consideration to know if the paper requires improvement before it is submitted:

  • Is the statement of the paper concise and clear? Whether or not it comes up at the rear of the initial paragraph? Does it describe your subject and reasons for putting it down?
  • Whether or not the thesis goes along with a rational course of details and provide an irrational observation of the subject?
  • Do you make use of appropriate documentation and illustrations to justify your paper?
  • Whether or not each paragraph in the body emphasis on a single argument? Does each entail a subject sentence and justifying documentation?
  • Are all justifications and justifying points valid? Do they build on merit?
  • Check for any unusual details present?
  • Whether or not the conclusion reflects the importance of the paper and put in summary the major arguments?
  • If there is seamless flow between sentences and paragraphs?
  • Whether or not the choice of words is precise and good?
  • If there are any mistakes left behind after editing?
  • Is the paper clear, engaging, easy to read, and effective?
  • Whether or not it is organized as per the directions provided?

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How to write a statement of purpose that stands out

A statement of purpose is a draft affirmation composed in the quality essay pattern. It shows a learner’s motivation for enrolling to graduate school, illustrates their experience and knowledge, and provides the office of admissions a precise picture of who the learner is as a human. It is important to entail long-term objectives and how to accomplish them. The admissions office is not aware of you, and the way in which you introduce who you are, and the reason why you are the perfect one to be enrolled is upon you. The best tool to accomplishing these targets is your statement of purpose.

Factors to consider

Your college: its core values, community, facilities, location, and the way in which they align with your own, and the benefits you will get with the program of this institution.

Your goals: reasons for looking for the particular program? Describe the extent of individual dedication, moreover, how much knowledge you have in this field or discipline. Additionally, demonstrate the effort and passion you are willing to incorporate in your learning.

Motivated, confident learners is what graduate institutions look for. For you to be picked out of numerous applicants, your statement of purpose has to be different from others. Additionally, originality and honesty is what you need to show to the office of admissions.

Apart from demonstrating your personality and ambition to go on with learning, it also provides understanding into your skills of writing. Additionally, demanding admission officers’ check for the basics: punctuation and grammar, your perception of storytelling, and your capability to trade in yourself. Always remember the most important thing is to show yourself as a motivated learner not only in profession goals but in your universal life.

How long should a statement of purpose be?

A statement of purpose basically should be a one page. You have to consider the number of these the admissions officers have to check and go through entirely. Additionally, if your statement of purpose is too lengthy, the admissions officers might get the notion that you are not overly determined. Determination is key to giving a properly formatted statement. The longer the statement 0of purpose the more you lose focus to tell your thoughts. This can make the admissions officers to go for the next learner without putting you in consideration at all. Moreover, reflect on the quality of the wok over the quantity of the work to decide how long your statement of purpose should be.


The statement of purpose (click here for sample) lay out is the same as any standard essay format. However, they do not require sources and research. Additionally, the statement of purpose does not require a title page and references: this is because you will not be required to make use of sources while using the statement of purpose arrangement.

How to start a statement of purpose

Before embarking on putting a statement of purpose, it’s key to be creative and determine on your favorable depiction of yourself. Illustrate why the institution you have selected is an important stride in your approach to accomplishing your goals by analyzing your expected aim. This is an important justification you are providing to the office of admissions. Being specific is key. Additionally, make you statements more realistic with information, this gives a bigger picture of what your exact concerns are.

Statement of purpose format

This is what to write:

The initial paragraph, considering the statement of purpose format, must expound your personality and incorporate your history details. More so, it is crucial to put down your career objectives. Ensure that all the details you are giving is precise to the scheme you are enrolling for. In one or another way, you have to illustrate to the admissions officers what the scheme has to give and how that relates with yourself.

The second paragraph, one must describe how your expectations grew into the passion. In the preceding paragraph provide that you have the background and skills required for the scheme. Show how it’s the perfect time to fully grow in this program.

The third and fourth paragraphs entail know-how of the program. In the initial start of the third paragraph, expound the understanding you might possess. This should be followed with specific details, such as any internships, any jobs you might have had, volunteering, or interesting projects. Keep in mind these past experiences have to be in line with the scheme you are enrolling for.

The conclusion paragraph, should be about your objectives. It is important to put attention to facts and details. Do not be too lengthy in this final part.

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How to write a synopsis of a book

A synopsis of a book is a summary of the plot or content. Literary agents and publishers often ask authors for a synopsis to evaluate their work. The task of fitting the contents of an entire book into a few paragraphs or pages can seem daunting, and there is no single right way to write a good synopsis.

Method 1

Writing a synopsis of a book

  1.  Determine the baseline.  Although the synopsis is a very short summary of a larger work, you still need to take the time to define the original conditions of the novel and include any information relevant to the reader to help understand the plot.
    • Imagine someone reading the synopsis first and then the book. What information is critical? Does the reader need to know the characteristic details about the location of the novel or the world you created?
  • Remember that you are trying to interest the reader, so include a couple of interesting details to help you imagine the time and place of the events.
  1.  Underline the main conflict.  Many are puzzled over what needs to be included in the synopsis, but the ironclad rule is to identify and outline the main conflict of the plot.
    • What will the main character of the book face?
    • Perhaps you should point out any special obstacles the characters will encounter?
    • What happens if the main character does not cope with the mission entrusted to him?
  2.  Show character development.  It will not be easy for you to fit the full character development described in the novel into a short synopsis, but many literary agents insist that the synopsis should reflect the changes that occur with the main character during the events of the book.
    • Try not to describe characters one-sidedly, show their reactions to different situations. And although you are limited in the amount of synopsis, the reader should still understand the personalities of the characters and how they will change.
  3.  Outline the plot.  Since the synopsis is a summary of the book, you need to set out the plot of the novel and give an idea of ​​the direction of the events.
    • It will be difficult for you not to drown in the details, but try to start by writing a short (1-2 sentences) content for each chapter. Then try to merge those paragraphs together.
    • You will not be able to include all the plot details, so determine which ones are especially important to understanding the book. Consider whether the ending would make sense without such detail. If the answer is yes, then exclude it.
  4.  A clear idea of ​​the ending.  You may not want to spoil the unexpected moment, but the synopsis should give a clear idea of ​​the ending of the novel and the global resolution of the conflict.
    • Literary agents want to know how you will resolve the conflict and tie the chain of events.
    • Do not worry. If your work gets published, the synopsis will not be printed on the cover and will not spoil the reader’s sense of novelty.
  5.  Reread the synopsis.  It is important to re-read your synopsis yourself and get the opinion of others. The more reviews from the outside, the more logical your synopsis will be.
    • It is very helpful to read the synopsis aloud, as it makes it easier to spot grammatical errors and edit the wording. As you read aloud, your brain processes information in a different way, so you begin to notice previously inconspicuous errors and flaws.
    • Ask friends, family or colleagues who have not read the book or are not familiar with your work to read the synopsis. They will be able to provide you with a more objective perspective, as well as tell you how consistent the synopsis is and is likely to interest you in reading the book.
  6.  The synopsis should contain answers to important questions.  Before submitting your synopsis, make sure it answers the following key questions:
    • Who is the central character of the book?
    • What is he / she striving for or trying to achieve?
    • Who or what makes it difficult for the character to find, travel, life?
    • What does all this lead to?
  7.  Practice your writing.  Many authors complain that the synopsis is the most difficult text to write, as it should crystallize the content of an entire book into just a few paragraphs. Fortunately, the more often you write synopsis, the better you will get.
    • To practice, try writing synopsis of classics or recently read books. Sometimes it’s easier to start with a book that didn’t take you many hours, days, or years to prepare.

Method 2

Writing a synopsis for a non-fiction book

  1.  Follow all available recommendations.  When working with an agent or specific publisher, be sure to check with them for specific requirements. It is important to write and arrange the synopsis as your employers want it to be.
    • If in doubt, check with the agent or publisher for the size, layout and style requirements.
    • Even if this is just homework, it is important to follow all the requirements and recommendations of the teacher.
  2.  Include a summary of the book.  As with fiction, you need to provide a short description of the content.
    • Concentrate on making your case clear and explain why this book should be published. Argument the importance of your book.
  3.  Outline the structure of the work.  Even if you haven’t finished the book yet, the synopsis needs to clearly outline the structure. Provide a chapter breakdown with working titles that will help the agent or publisher get your head around you.
    • You can also include a short description (1-2 sentences) of each chapter.
  4.  Identify the differences between the book and the competition.  In the synopsis, it is necessary to explain how the book differs from existing books on this topic. Consider the uniqueness of your contribution.
    • For example, do you present a fresh perspective or way of interpreting a subject in a book?
    • List major authors and publications on the subject, then clearly explain the originality of your material.
    • Also describe why you are capable of high-quality coverage of this issue.
  5.  Discuss the place of the book on the market.  Looking at your book, the publisher will try to find its place in the market and target audience. Highlight a paragraph in the synopsis to address this issue.
    • Include information about the department of the bookstore in which you see the book. This will help the publisher assess the potential demand and ways to promote the book.
    • What groups of people, in your opinion, will show interest in the material? For example, the book could be used in training courses or at events celebrating the anniversary of a historic event. If your book is related to this event, it will be possible to build an advertising campaign on this.
  6.  Share your plans.  Many books of scientific content are approved for publication in the process of writing, but in the synopsis, you should clearly state your completion dates.
    • Indicate how much is already done, then estimate the time it takes to complete the work.
  7.  Please provide additional details.  Include other relevant details in the synopsis – the scope of the finished work and the possible need for illustrations. The more information is provided about the structure and format of the book, the easier it is for a publisher to determine whether they are willing to take on a project.
  8.  Tell us about your qualifications and achievements.  To give your synopsis some weight, include your accomplishments and experiences that have contributed to the writing of the book.
    • It is important not only to include information about your education and scientific background, but also to determine what details of your biography might interest the publisher and readers.
  9.  Find out what other people think.  As with any writing activity, feedback from others about your synopsis helps to improve the style of the text, make it more intriguing and understandable. Ask your friends, family or colleagues to read the text and give their opinion.
    • You don’t need to be an expert to understand how interesting and well written the synopsis is. Don’t worry – you don’t have to look for experts in this matter.

Method 3

Common mistakes on synopsis

  1.  Don’t write the synopsis on behalf of the main character.  The synopsis is written from a third person, not from the main character. It is also preferable to use the present over the past tense.
  2.  Reduce the volume.  The synopsis should be short, while verbosity is a fairly common mistake. Perhaps you really do not want to cut out the dialogue and shorten the description, but this way the synopsis will turn out to be more harmonious and competent.
    • Think about whether all of the above details are important for the synopsis, or if you can do without some. If the reader can grasp the essence of the book without any details, then it is better to omit them.
    • As a rule, no dialogue is needed in the synopsis. If you choose to include dialogue, then keep it as short as possible and relevant to an important plot turning point.
    • Don’t try to make the text graceful or lyrical. This requires volume, and you should focus on keeping your book concise and clear. Reread the synopsis several times. Think about where you can use clearer or more accurate words.
  3.  You shouldn’t reveal too many details about the heroes and introduce minor characters.  It is possible that you spent a lot of time working out your characters and the events of their lives, but there is no place in the synopsis for all these events, as well as for minor characters.
    • Include just enough details to keep your characters interesting and not blurred. A few phrases are usually enough to give an idea of ​​the character.
  4.  There is no need to analyze and interpret the plot.  The synopsis is meant only as a short description or a quick glance at the book, so do not include literary analysis or interpretation of the plot and secret meanings. For such investigations, completely different works are written.
  5.  Avoid rhetorical and unanswered questions.  Despite the temptation, you should not try to build up tension and leave questions unanswered, as they will only distract the reader from the point.
    • For example, don’t write, “Will Tyler be able to find out who killed his mother?” In synopsis, it is better to give answers, rather than ask questions.
  6.  Don’t write a synopsis that is just a retelling of the plot.  He must attract the attention of readers, interest them in reading the book. A direct retelling of events will give the impression that the reader has a dry technical manual.
    • It is better to add emotions and details, hinting at the feelings and experiences of the characters.
    • Having caught yourself writing “this happened, then this, and finally this,” it’s time to take a break and return to work with a fresh mind. You can’t make your synopsis look like a boring retelling of a sports event.
    • Some writers advise you to imagine that you are describing a book to your friends in the same way you describe an interesting movie to them. Skip boring details and focus on the highlights.

Method 4

Text formatting in a synopsis

  1.  Use double spacing.  If your synopsis is more than one page, use double spacing in your document. This makes it easier to read.
  2.  Be sure to include the title of the book and your name.  In a hurry, you can easily forget to say both the title of the book and your name. Please include this information in the upper left corner of each page.
    • It is important that the literary agent knows who to contact if he liked the synopsis.
  3.  Use a standard font.  While you might want to use a more interesting font, it’s best not to deviate from standard options like Times New Roman, which are familiar and displayed on a wide variety of devices.
    • Use the same font in your synopsis as your book was printed. Perhaps, along with the synopsis, you will attach examples of some chapters, then there will be consistency in your documents.
  4.  Start paragraphs indented.  Despite the brevity of the synopsis, it should not be perceived as a stream of consciousness. To avoid this, structure your text by using indentation at the beginning of paragraphs.
  5.  Follow the recommendations for volume.  Different literary agents or publishers may have different requirements for the length of the synopsis. Be sure to comply with the stated requirements or clarify your wishes on this issue.
    • Some writers recommend that you first write about 5 pages of text, and then shrink the document to the required length.
    • Be prepared for different requirements in advance by writing different versions of the synopsis of one and three pages. Even if the requirements turn out to be slightly different, you can easily adjust the document to the required size.


  • Start by summarizing each chapter in one or two sentences. Then tie them together.
  • A good way to prepare for your synopsis is to imagine that you are retelling the plot of the book to your friends as you would retelling the plot of a movie. Focus on the main points, omitting unnecessary details and plot details.
  • Write your synopsis in a third person, not the main character of the book.
  • Always follow the requirements of the literary agent or publisher regarding the length or formatting of the text.


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Writing a Winning Lesson Plan

Writing a winning Lesson plan  is the “alpha” and “omega” of the teacher’s activities. A detailed plan will help to conduct the lesson as as possible. Also, save time and allow you to achieve your goals. A well-structured lesson plan aids the teacher to keep students’ attention.
Winning Lesson Plan Content:
Content of the lessons will be different, depending on the subject, the type of lesson. But the basic principles of drawing up a competent summary are the same in all cases.
  • Lesson topic
  • Lesson objectives
  • Planned tasks
  • Lesson type and form
  • Equipment
  • During the classes

Stage 1.

Lesson topic on a winning lesson plan writing

Topic of the lesson is always indicated in the teacher’s annual lesson plan. But in some cases, it requires clarification.  Thus, when formulating the topic, specify the amount of material in advance.

Stage II. Lesson objectives on a winning lesson plan writing

Modern method does not need separation of goals into teaching, educational and developmental. It is convenient for teachers to use proven method to distinguish lesson goals in three positions:

Learning goals

These can be goals such as:
  • To give an idea of.
  • To generalize and systematize knowledge about.
  • To acquaint students with (concept, rule, facts, law, etc.)
  • Develop skills (for example, analysis of lyric text).


To foster in students a sense of patriotism, humanity, hard work. As well as respect for elders, aesthetic taste, ethical standards, discipline.


Here goals shows that will help develop students’ memory, fantasy, thinking. Moreover, cognitive ability, will, independence, communication. If the lesson provides for group types of work. One can state that the main developmental goal will be to teach how to work in a team. Besides, express and defend your point of view, and develop communication skills.

Stage III. Planned tasks on a winning lesson plan writing

It indicates the least of the knowledge and skills that students should get from the lesson. The planned tasks compares with the requirements for the knowledge and skills of students.
Stage IV. Lesson type and form on lesson plan
You don’t need to specify them in the plan, but for every time it is worth clarifying whether it will be an explanation lesson. Also, conversation lesson, or you are aiming to conduct an unconventional lesson. For convenience, we will give examples of the most common types and forms of the lesson.

Types and forms of the lesson

  1. Lesson of familiarization with new material. Forms: conversation, problem lesson, lecture.
  2. Lesson to merge what is learnt. Forms: games, competitions, KVN, travel, benefit performance. Additionally, briefing, auction, fairy tale, briefing, performance, etc.
  3. Lesson in applying new knowledge and skills in practice. Forms: same as for reinforcement lessons. You can also conduct research lessons, laboratory, creative workshops, competitions, testing, excursions, etc.
  4. Generalization and systematization of knowledge. The form is choses free, at the request of the teacher.
  5. Control lesson. Forms: both traditional tests, tests, dictations, essays, and more creative types: seminars. Furthermore briefings or consultations.
  6. Integrated lessons. The forms are free, since it involves 2 or more subjects in one lesson.

Stage V. Equipment on a winning lesson plan

Teacher lists everything that he/she will use during the lesson here. These are multimedia presentations, reproductions of paintings. Moreover, audio and video materials, visuals and handouts.

Stage VI. During the classes

  1. Organizational moment is an obligatory stage of all lessons. Helps to focus the attention of students. To determine their concentration and readiness for the lesson.
  2. Checking homework. Experienced teachers practice daily homework checking. This helps not only to check how well the previous topic was. But also, to remind the class of the main points of the previous lessons.

Exceptions are control lessons.

  1. Updating students’ knowledge on the topic. This stage is optional, but very popular in teaching methods. Actualization helps students tune in to the perception of the topic. Outlines the range of issues that the lesson considers. Addition, actualization makes it possible to set a practical lesson goal
  2. Announcement of the topic and objectives of the lesson. The teacher can himself identify the topics and goals of the lesson. Or you can lead students to this during a preliminary conversation. Thus, making a cluster or mini-testing.
  3. The main part of the lesson. This part of the lesson will vary depending on the type and form of the lesson. But the principle of construction is the same. From simple to complex, from general to particular.
  4. Summing up. This step is optional. Many teachers replace this stage with reflection. It is important for the teacher to understand what the students have learned. As well as what questions remained unclear, problems unresolved.
  5. This stage is self-explanatory. There is only a clarification. Grades can be set by the teacher himself, analyzing and evaluating the work of students in the lesson. Recently, they have been practicing more self-assessment or a system of accumulated points. In this case, students test their own work.
  6. Traditionally, this stage leaves to the end of the lesson. But homework can appear both at the beginning and in the middle of the lesson. Especially if the home will ask, for example, writing an essay, essay, or doing a laboratory. In this case, the teacher orients attention that thesis developed will be important.
The modern method recommends, in addition to the compulsory assignment, offering students options of a more complex level or aimed at developing creative abilitiesFor example, not just learn a poem, but also create a collage, draw a picture on a topic, or prepare a report, presentation.
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Scientific reports and articles writing

Scientific reports and articles writing is done according to certain canons developed by many generations of scientists. Traditions in this case are necessary so that different people understand each other without additional efforts. The stricter the requirements for terminology, language, a form of presentation of the material, design, the less the reader is distracted by secondary details, the faster he will be able to understand the main essence of the work. To neglect these traditions is to be inadequate in the eyes of the community.

Any reports and articles writing pursues simultaneously two goals:

  • To convey the main ideas of the author to a wide audience so that non-specialists in this narrow topic can understand the main ideas, spending a minimum of time;
  • Present a detailed presentation of the results obtained so that a small number of narrow specialists could understand, double-check, develop, and apply them.

Where to begin on reports and articles writing

Let’s say you solved a problem – built a model, proved a theorem, performed a computational experiment, and got results. How to start writing a report, how to overcome the barrier of entry?

  • Formulate and write down the objectives of your research. You will probably have to use technical terms that your fellow student does not know. Let’s say you explain your work to him while walking together from the university to the nearest transport. There is no paper or pen, no blackboard, no presentation, you can only talk. Explain the key concepts, explain where the problem came from and what the problem was. So you wrote the introduction.
  • Write down a structural plan for the entire article, with all sections and subsections.
  • Start writing the section that seems to you the most simple and clear. Usually, this is a section of concepts and notations.
  • So you are overclocked. Then the matter will go by itself. Add sections in the order you like. A scientific article is not a detective story, it does not have to be written in a row.
  • Whenever things get stuck, consult with your supervisor.

Typical structure of scientific reports and articles writing

To learn how to write scientific articles, you need to understand how people read them. It turns out that most scientists read the annotation, the conclusion and (just like children) look at the pictures, trying to quickly draw some conclusions from the graphs and captions under them. Only if the article seems worthwhile to spend time on it, they start reading it. But most still don’t read beyond the introduction.

Hence, important practical conclusions:

  • In the annotation and conclusion, you need to write the most important thing that you want to convey to the widest possible audience;
  • The article must have a graph that most clearly shows the most important result you received;
  • Each graph together with the caption should be a visual and self-sufficient message of the scientific result;
  • in the course of the research, you must constantly think about how you will present each of your results.

Scientific reports and articles writing an annotation

A brief description of the research topic and the main result, in one paragraph of 5-15 lines, without formulas, without literature references, without highly specialized terms.

Purpose of the annotation: to outline in general terms what the work is about. After reading the annotation for a minute, a non-specialist in a given narrow topic should understand whether this work is interesting to him and whether it is worth reading further.

The abstract is collected last by lightly modifying the key phrases (the most important and well-formulated) from the introduction and conclusion.

Introduction of scientific reports and articles writing

The introduction explains where this problem arises and why it is so important to solve it. At the informal level, a minimum of terms is introduced, which is necessary to understand the problem statement. A brief analysis of the sources of information (literary review) is given: how this problem was solved so far, what is the disadvantage of these solutions, and what is new by the author. Research objectives are formulated. At the end of the introduction, a summary of the work is given in sections; at the same time, it is noted which approaches, methods, algorithms are proposed by the author for the first time. When the key sections are mentioned, the main results and the most important conclusions are summarized.

Purpose of the introduction: to give a fairly complete picture of the study performed and the results obtained, understandable to a wide range of specialists. Most readers will read the introduction and, perhaps, the conclusion. In the introduction, the author solves a complex optimization problem: how to communicate only the most important things, spending a minimum of the reader’s time, and so that the maximum of readers understands what is at stake.

It is better to write the introduction at the end since, in the course of work, a rethinking of the problem statement usually occurs. If you write the introduction when the work is not yet ready, the task becomes doubly complicated. In the end, it usually comes to the understanding that everything turned out not at all as planned at the beginning, and the original version of the introduction will still have to be rewritten. By the way, such “losses” should be treated calmly – in good work, almost every paragraph is repeatedly reworked beyond recognition.

Definitions and notation of scientific reports and articles writing

Formal problem statement. For known concepts, it is advisable to adhere to standard notation. Common terms are introduced by the word “called”. The terms invented by the author himself are introduced by the words “we will name” or “we will call”. This section usually ends with a formal statement of the problem.

It is from this section that you should start writing an article.

Known results of scientific reports and articles writing

Listed are the approaches, methods, facts on which this work is essentially based, but which may not be known to a wide range of readers. Here literature references are required. Theorems are only formulated, but not proved.

Objectives of this section. First, to make the article self-sufficient – to give the necessary minimum of information to those readers who are not very well versed in the topic, but want to get to know this particular work better. Second, to facilitate the comparison of the results obtained by the author with those previously known.

How to understand what designations should be introduced, and what well-known results to mention, especially if this is the first scientific article in your life?

Criterion: if this is a bachelor’s dissertation, then the text should be written so that any student who studied at another department could understand everything.

New approaches and results

One or several sections are the main results obtained by the author. Actually, for the sake of their publication, the entire text is written. The theorems are presented with proofs.

Computational experiment

The applied problem, the parameters of the analyzed data (for example, how many objects, how many features, and what types they are), the parameters of the experiment (for example, how the sliding control was performed) are described. The experimental results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. Explains the exact meaning of all symbols in graphs, rows, and columns in tables. Conclusions are given: to what extent do the experimental results agree with the theory? Have you achieved the desired result? Are there any facts that have not found an explanation and which cannot be attributed to a “dirty” experiment?

The idea here helps to demonstrate that the proposed theory works in practice; show the boundaries of its applicability; tell about new experimental facts. Purely theoretical works may not contain this section (it does not work, well, it is not necessary – but the theory is beautiful). By the way, theorists have the right not to guess where to whom and when their theories will be useful.

Discussions and conclusions on scientific reports and articles writing

The main differences between the proposed methods and those known previously. What are its advantages? What are the limits of their applicability? What problems were solved and what remained open? What new tasks have emerged?

Conclusion or main results

In qualification papers, the last section is needed to concisely list the main results obtained personally by the author. The results are, in particular:

  • A new approach to …
  • A new method has been developed … allowing …
  • Several theorems have been proved, confirming (refuting) that …
  • It has been shown experimentally that …

This section is to prove the author’s qualifications. Even a cursory glance at the conclusion should be enough to make it clear: the author was able to solve an urgent, difficult, previously unsolved problem, the solutions proposed by the author are justified and verified.

In reviews, it is expressed approximately in the following words: “the work meets all the requirements for [bachelor’s, master’s, diploma, candidate’s – delete unnecessary] dissertations; the author is worthy of being awarded the title [bachelor, master, etc.]


It is considered bad form:

  • Refer to the works of only one or two authors (for example, yourself or your boss);
  • Cite too few works;
  • Only refer to very old work;
  • Refer to works that the author has never seen;
  • Do not refer to anything at all.

Ten principles of clear communication

To learn how to write scientific texts well, one must constantly read other people’s scientific texts. At the same time, think about the following questions: Do I really understand everything? If something is not clear, then why is my knowledge not enough or is it written badly? If it is badly written, then what exactly and what the author should have done for me to understand him. With such thoughtful reading, you will soon develop your own techniques for clarity.

The direct path is the shortest

Always use the minimum set of tools (concepts, designations, explanations), sufficient to be understood. Isn’t it beautiful general words, but completely non-specific. How can you use this recommendation in practice? One of the possible technologies is as follows:

Think about the main point you are going to convey to the reader. Don’t start from afar, just write it right away. Now think about why you might not be understood if you say so straight away. Your colleague, with whom you did this work, will probably understand. But an unfamiliar reader must first explain all the concepts you used, formulate a problem, explain why it needs to be solved, etc. All this will have to be written before the main idea.

The main thing is not to “beat around the bush” and not write too much! Write only what, without which the main idea cannot be explained.

This principle of thinking over the presentation applies both to the article as a whole and any of its parts, up to individual sentences. This is how, from end to beginning, with constant care for the potential reader, the structure of the future article appears.

Try to get to the disclosure of the main idea in the shortest way. How this path will be found – from end to beginning, from beginning to end, or from the middle – is ultimately not so important, it’s a matter of taste.

Reader’s time is a valuable resource

The standard of the unclear presentation will be considered “official language” – dry, boring, difficult to understand, but at the same time formally absolutely correct (no doubt, there are examples of even more terrible presentation; however, the problem of how to make the best out of good is discussed here).

Brevity is the soul of wit

Keep your phrases short. Each phrase should contain exactly one thought. In a Russian phrase (by the way, as in English), the most important word, the significance of which I would like to emphasize, is put last. Pay attention to the position of the words “especially” and “last” in the previous phrase. Is it clear now what is meant?

Commenting formulas

Text containing formulas should remain generally comprehensible if you read it by simply skipping all formulas. This means that each formula should be accompanied by a commentary explaining its meaningful meaning, or explaining what it is interesting for, or why it will be needed in the future.

The author must make sure that his text is understandable to both categories of readers, that is, it reaches the widest possible layers of the professional community.

Simplicity and consistency of notation

The notation system should be simple (not overloaded) and not change during the presentation.

Balance formal and informal

Formal presentation (hypotheses, definitions, lemmas, theorems, consequences, remarks) should be interspersed with informal explanations, interpretations, remarks, examples that appeal to intuition and common sense. However, this should be formalized in such a way that the reader immediately understands: “This is where the proofs ended and the interpretations began”. In English-language articles, it is customary to insert a Discussion section at this point.

The main ideas of the text should be generally understood if the evidence is skipped entirely. If an important idea is hidden inside the proof, then its discussion should be taken outside the proof. In this case, it is better to split the proof into lemmas.


The presentation of the main part should be structured, that is, divided into blocks (paragraphs, sections). Each block must solve a more or less isolated problem. At the beginning of the block, it should be announced why it is being solved, and why it is being solved that way. To answer the question “why”, one must recall the overall goal of the entire study. To answer the question “why so”, it is necessary to review the literature.

Each section, regardless of level and volume, is built according to the same scenario. In the beginning, the statement of the problem and its role in the entire study (or in the encompassing section) are explained informally. The conclusion informally explains what happened and how to interpret it. If the result is improved in the following sections, this is worth mentioning. The middle part can be entirely formal.

  • An important principle: the presentation as a whole should be clear if the middle parts in all sections are omitted entirely.

The logical sequence of presentation

Each next phase should logically follow directly from the previous one (or several previous ones). Too hard? Then at least 95% of the phrases. Following the linear logic of presentation is an order of magnitude less tiring than jumping from topic to topic. An abrupt change of topic should be formalized explicitly as a new paragraph, section, subsection.

Any term or designation must be introduced before first use, even if it is in general use. This seems to be obvious, but due to inexperience, it is difficult to keep track of every squiggle, especially when the text is reworked many times.

Read Seven Times, Send Once

In fact, seven times is not enough. Usually, a student writing his first term paper or article is not aware of how many mistakes will be made due to inattention. In almost every phrase! It’s okay, people tend to be wrong. Many people also tend not to notice their own mistakes. Therefore, the stage of careful reading should never be skipped.

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Editing and Proofreading in writing

Revision, editing and proofreading are important steps to take in a writing. Just when you thought you were done writing paper, you realized that you still need to revise and change. But what does it mean? They  are easy to confuse, but it is very important for students to understand the difference.

Editing begins as soon as you have your first draft of your work ready. As you re-read what you’ve written, you may notice a few places where the wording doesn’t seem to flow as well as the rest of your work. You can decide to change a few words or add a sentence or two. Work through your argument and make sure that you have the evidence to support them. It is also time to make sure that you have established your thesis and kept your focus on that throughout the entire document.

Helpful hints for

  • Give yourself time between writing the first draft and look at it again for revision. A few hours can give you enough time to see it with a fresh eye, more likely to identify problem areas.
  • Read the article out loud. Sometimes speaking in words helps you to better feel the paper flow.
  • Don’t worry about editing yet. Get big ideas down and leave the detailing for later
  • Make sure the paper is organized in a logical order. Make own thesis statement and follow it up with quotes, arguments, and evidence in a way that makes your purpose clear.

Paper editing happens when you have a project, you are confident in the whole. In this process, you will be looking for details that may have escaped you during the recording process. Spelling errors are often caught by spell checking, but don’t trust this tool to catch everything. Using Word is also a common problem to catch in editing. Is there a word you are reusing? Or do you write there when you meant them? Details like this seem small on an individual basis, but so as they accumulate, they can distract the reader.

What to look for when revising, editing and proofreading

  • Look for spelling and capitalization errors that your editing software may have missed.
  • Punctuation can have a big impact on how paper flows. This creates a rhythm that can completely break or break the paper.
  • The fact of checking Are you citing your quotes and sources correctly?
  • Don’t be afraid to let a friend or colleague look at him with unfamiliar eyes. Sometimes you know your material is so good that your brain automatically fills in the blanks or sees what you meant instead of what you said. Someone sees work for the first time, perhaps catching things that you didn’t do.

Once you get into the habit of revising and editing, it gets a little easier. You begin to recognize your own voice and style, and even get learn the mistakes you are most susceptible to. You know the difference between there them and them, but sometimes your fingers type faster than you can think and mistakes happen. After a few jobs, the process will be more natural.



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Essay Writing

On essay writing, one of the forms of independent work, which has a creative character, is the essay. In this article, we will talk about how to write an essay on any topic and avoid common mistakes. You will learn about what the structure of an essay should be. What features distinguish an essay from other genres. How to choose a topic and express your thoughts on paper

What is an Essay Writing?

Many people assume that the essay is regular. Yet, it is not.
Essays are a prosaic literary genre. Translated from French means “sketch” or “sketch”. The essay reflects the individual experiences of the author, his view of this or that issue. It does not give an exhaustive answer to a specific question. But reflects its own opinion or impression.
When writing an essay, logic, the ability to argue your opinion. And present information developed. The presentation style is more conversational.

Characteristic Features of the Essay Writing

On essay writing, you should take account features distinguishing it from another genre.

The main features of an essay:

  1. The presence of a certain narrow topic contains a problem and encourages the reader to think.
  2. Subjective author’s position. The essay distinguishes the presence of the author’s view of the existing problem—his attitude to the world, speech and thinking.
  3. Conversational writing style. Should avoid complicated formulations, and too long sentences. It is important to maintain a casual style to connect with the reader. At the same time, it is important not to overdo it, turning the essay into a low-quality text full of slang. Short, simple and clear sentences, the use of different intonation in sentences. This will give the correct emotional color to the text.
  4. Detailed analysis of the problem. Your own point of view should argue based on factual material.
  5. The relative brevity of presentation. There is no limit on the number of pages, but the essay is small.
  6. Free construction. The essay has the character of presentation, which does not fit into a specific framework. The construction obeys its own logic, which the author adheres to. Seeking to consider the problem from different angles.
  7. The logic of presentation. Despite the free composition, the essay should have internal unity, the consistency of the author’s statements expressing his opinion.
Thus, the essay distinguishes a special style of storytelling; its purpose is to induce the reader to think. The author does not insist on his point of view, but as if it invites the reader to think over and discuss it.

How do you write an Essay?

Correct writing of an essay is about understanding the specifics of the genre. Following the basic principles and guidelines for writing will create an interesting essay.

How to Choose a Theme on Essay Writing

If there is no list of topics among which you can choose one, and only offers a general direction. Then you need to take into account what designs the audience of the essay. The options may be different. A teacher at a university, a commission, a literary community, an employer. Suppose an essay is being written for delivery to a teacher. Then it is necessary to consider the assessing qualities. Based on this, one should choose the topic so that there is an opportunity on what the examiner expects. The ability to build sentences, literacy, professional qualities, etc.
When choosing a topic for writing an essay from the proposed list. One should choose one in which there are certain knowledge considerations—besides, strong interest.
Suppose the essay is focuses on the employer, then the character of the author. His sincerity, originality, humanity and individuality.

How to Start an Essay Writing

It often happens that a person who has sufficient eloquence and ability to express his thoughts on paper has difficulties in starting an essay, including an essay. Thinking about the beginning can take quite a long time, which greatly overshadows the process of creative work. Use our tips on how to start an essay.
Tip 1. Before you start writing an essay, you need to formulate an idea, define a goal and find sources of information for work.
Tip 2. Use the freewriting technique (freewriting). Its essence is to write down all thoughts that come to mind, without editing it and without following grammar, punctuation, style, etc. An excellent way to help cope with a creative crisis and find an extraordinary idea.
Tip 3. It is important not to get hung up on the introductory part. One can write introduction after writing the main part. In this case, it is already clear what the essay is about, so the introduction is easier to write.
Tip 4. One of the fairly common options is to write an essay, starting with a question, the answer later.

How to Outline an Essay?

It would help if you did not strive to draw up an ideal plan right away. It is not at all necessary to make a plan when writing an essay, as well as adhere to an already written plan. The lack of restrictions and rigid boundaries is the advantage of this genre. If it is easier for the author to stick to a strict plan, then it is worth taking the time to draw up one.
All main thoughts should reflect in the form of points in the plan. Then detail it in as much detail as possible, breaking each item into sub-items.
Then it would be best if you reread the plan, make sure that each point is in its place and is sufficiently detailed.

What the Structure of the Essay Consists Of

The order of writing an essay is usually reduced to three steps.
  • Introductory part

Like any written work, an essay contains an introductory part or introduction.
A well-written introduction keeps the reader interested and read the essay to the end. The introductory part may contain the formulation of the problem and its essence, a rhetorical question. A quote, etc. it is important to create a special emotional mood and bring the reader to the problem under consideration.
  • Main part

In the main part, you can give different points of view on the problem under consideration, touch on the history of the issue.
Usually, the main part consists of several sub-classes, each of which consists of three sections:
  1. Thesis (provable judgment)
  2. Justification (arguments used to prove the thesis)
  3. Sub-conclusion (partial answer to the main question)
Arguments are judgments made to convince the reader of the truth of a particular point of view. These can be different situations from life, opinions of scientists, evidence, etc.
The argumentation can be in the following sequence:
  • Statement
  • Explanation
  • Example
  • Final judgment.
  • Conclusion
The conclusion brings together all the conclusions drawn from each thesis presented in the main part. The reader should come to a logical conclusion based on the given arguments. In conclusion, the problem is reintroduced, and the conclusion is drawn.
If the purpose of the introductory part is to interest the reader, then the purpose of the last sentences is to add integrity to the overall picture, to leave the work in the reader’s memory and push for thought.

The difference between an essay and an essay

Writing an essay correctly is different from writing a regular essay. Therefore, if the task is to write an essay, then you need to take into account the characteristic features of the genre that distinguish it from the rest.
Unlike an essay, which analyzes a work of fiction, an essay contains the author’s point of view and his position on the problem under consideration.
Also, one of the features that distinguish an essay from a composition is its paradoxicality, that is, the goal is to surprise the reader, impress him using vivid images, aphorisms, and paradoxical statements.

Essay Writing Guidelines

All the rules for writing an essay are advisory in nature. Use our tips on how to write an essay, also considering the information provided above, and create an essay that will impress the reader.

Essay Writing Writing Tips:

  1. When writing an essay, you should alternate short phrases with long ones. In this case, the text will be dynamic enough to be easily read.
  2. You should not use complex and incomprehensible words, especially if the meaning of the word is unfamiliar.
  3. Use as few general phrases as possible. The essay should be unique, individualized, reflecting the personality of the author.
  4. Humour should be written very carefully. Sarcasm and cockiness can annoy the reader.
  5. Reflecting on personal experiences, memories, and impressions is a great way to validate your point of view and belief in the reader.
  6. It is necessary to stick to the topic and the main idea, without deviating from it and not describing unnecessary details.
  7. After finishing the essay, you should reread it. Also, making sure that you maintain logic of presentation throughout the entire story.
  8. Using facts, research results in an essay is a great option for giving credibility.

Common Mistakes During Essay Writing

Knowing the most common mistakes will help you avoid them when writing your own essay.
Mistake 1. The fear of being misunderstood or not making the right impression contributes to the fact that the author removes everything superfluous and outstanding from the essay. Due to this, the essay may lose its individuality and originality.
Mistake 2. Insufficient elaboration of details. A common mistake is the presence of a statement that is not supported by a sufficient number of arguments in the form of examples and evidence.
Mistake 3. Misunderstanding the essence of the problem stated in the essay or misinterpretation of the topic.
Mistake 4. Listing other people’s opinions, without indicating their authorship and lack of their own point of view.
The beauty of the essay genre lies in the absence of rigid restrictions. Complete freedom of creativity, the ability to express your views and share your thoughts, an unconventional solution to the problem – these are the features inherent in essays that make this genre attractive to a creative person who generates original ideas.
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Reflective Writing

Reflective writing is an analytical practice in which the writer describes a real or imagined scene, event, interaction, fleeting thought or memory and adds personal reflection on its meaning. Many reflective writers have questions like “What did I notice?”, “How did it change me?” or “What could I have done differently?” on reflection

Thus, reflective writing focuses on writing that is not just descriptive. The writer revisits the scene to note details and emotions, reflect on its meaning, examine what went well or identify the need for additional learning, and relate what happened to the rest of life.

“Reflection is a way of research: a deliberate way of systematically recalling the experience of writing in order to rethink the current situation of writing.”

The more someone writes reflectively, the more likely they are to reflect regularly in their daily life, think outside the box, and challenge accepted practices.

Reflective Writing


In reflexive writing, the writer tries to convey his own thought process. Consequently, reflective writing is one of the most personal writing styles as the writer is clearly involved in the work. This writing style invites both the reader and the writer to introspection and exploration of their own thoughts and beliefs, and gives the writer and reader a closer, less distant relationship.

Reflective writing usually consists of a description or explanation of an event and its context; interpretation, or how the experience has challenged existing opinions; and the outcome, or how the experience has contributed to personal or professional development.

Most reflective letters are written in the first person because it speaks of the personal experience of the writer, but often in academic writing it is supplemented by a third person because the writer must support his point of view with external evidence.

Reflective writing is usually a style that needs to be learned and practiced. Most aspiring writers are initially non-reflective and must move from imitation writing to their own style of genuine critical thinking.

It is noted that reflection “is a dialectical process by which we develop and achieve, first, specific learning goals; second, strategies for achieving these goals; and third, a means of determining whether we have achieved these goals or other goals. … ”

The concepts of reflection and reflective writing are social constructs that are widespread in academic literature, and their meanings have different interpretations in different contexts.

Characteristics of reflective writing

The main characteristics of reflective writing:

  • Reflection: The author reflects on a problem (that is, the topic he is writing about) and considers how his own experiences and perspectives might influence their answer. It helps the writer learn about himself and also contribute to a better end product that accommodates biases.
  • Evidence: The writer considers and cites a variety of perspectives and evidence to provide truly comprehensive thinking. “Testimony” can mean either academic evidence or the author’s own reflections and experiences, depending on whether this reflection is personal or academic.
  • Clarity: The writer must be clear and coherent. Because reflexive writing introduces the reader to both the author’s own thoughts and other outside perspectives, cohesion and readability are critical to ensuring that the reader is not lost between points of view.

If the meditation is written for academia, i.e. not a personal meditation or a journal, additional features include:

  • Theory: Academic thinking will combine theories and other academic works to explain thinking. For example, a writer might say, “Smith’s social activity theory may explain why I reacted this way.”
  • Learning Outcomes: Academic reflection will include comments on how the writer learned from the experience, what he would have done differently, or how his views or opinions changed as a result of the experience.

Reflective writing in academia

Reflective writing helps students better understand their goals. Reflective writing is regularly used in academia as it helps students think about how they think. In other words, it is a form of metacognition. It is often assigned to higher education students and is especially useful for students and practitioners in composition, education, and health as it helps them reflect on their practice. Typical academic reflections include portfolios, resumes, and journals. Reflective writing is not limited to academic writing because it often takes many different forms. Sometimes it is used in individual assessment tasks, and sometimes it is included in other tasks, such as an essay.

Evidence shows that reflective writing is a good way to increase empathy in medical students. Another study found that students who were tasked with reflective writing during camp developed greater self-awareness, better understanding of their goals, and were better able to recognize their personal development.

Reflective writing is useful for improving collaboration as it helps authors understand how they sound when they voice their thoughts and opinions to others. It is also an important part of the reflective learning cycle that involves planning, acting, observing, and thinking. Students may hesitate to write reflectively, as this requires them not only to consider, but also to actively quote what they usually hide or ignore in academic writing, such as their anxieties and flaws.

Reflective writing in the academic environment is sometimes criticized because of concerns about its effectiveness. Reflexive writing assignments are often low in course grades and may be considered secondary when under heavy workload. It has also been argued that reflective writing assignments are only assigned as “strenuous work,” since they do not require much maintenance and are relatively easy to evaluate. In addition, because the students know that they will receive grades from their thinking, this may not be accurate.

However, reflective writing is becoming increasingly important in education as reflecting on the work done helps students see opportunities for improvement.

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What is Academic Writing and Scientific Text – Features and Genres of Writing

Scientists from English-speaking countries are well aware of what academic writing is, but in our country this discipline is just beginning to develop. It implies the ability to formulate thoughts concisely and clearly when writing scientific papers.

This knowledge is essential for researchers who want to develop in scientific fields, especially at the international level. The academic style is distinguished by a clear structure, clarity of presentation of thoughts, and the absence of errors in the text.

This article will tell you what academic writing is and how to master this writing style.

What is Academic Writing?

Academic writing is a style of presenting scientific papers. It represents the ability to express thoughts in scientific papers in a concise and accessible form. This style is distinguished by:

  • The presence of certain requirements for the structure of the text and its design;
  • The use of a scientific or journalistic style of presentation;
  • The ability to argue and paraphrase;
  • The ability to correctly insert links and draw up a list of references.

Academic writing is characterized by a concentration on the problem being described, and not on the expression of personal opinion. Instead of the first person, it is preferable to use the third, to avoid using colloquial vocabulary, abbreviations, phraseological units. Unlike other styles, here it is allowed to repeat the same words for a better understanding of the material, less often synonyms are used.

The academic style of storytelling is used in higher education institutions to maintain educational and scientific ties between countries. With its help, students, graduate students and more experienced scientists write reports, term papers and develop research activities outside their native state.

The principles of this style of writing are guided by editors of international scientific journals, so it is necessary to master its skills for every scientist who wants to succeed in the world of science and publish scientific works abroad.

Researchers from foreign countries have long been using academic writing. In addition, English-speaking scientists also make a major contribution to its development. In our country, knowledge on the academic style is not so actively disseminated, although scientists from various fields are engaged in solving the problem – philologists, linguists, sociopsychologists, information technology specialists.

Academic Writing Genres

Specialists involved in the development of the academic writing system have identified primary and secondary genres of texts. The first include the following:

  1. A scientific article is the main source of transmission of scientific and technical information, the text contains the results of the scientist’s research, logical reasoning, and substantiation of the data obtained.
  2. A review is a critical assessment of a scientific work by other reputable scientists.
  3. A monograph is a work devoted to a specific topic, which is written by a researcher based on a large number of sources found on scientific topics.
  4. A dissertation is a voluminous scientific work necessary for an applicant to obtain an academic degree of candidate / doctor of sciences.

Among the secondary genres are:

  • An abstract is a text that is similar in meaning to the original source and conveys truthful information, but with the possibility of adding new information.
  • Abstract – a summary of a scientific work, reflecting the essence. It can be in the form of a list of abstracts on a topic or a description of the structure of an article, dissertation.
  • Scientific discussions – finding a solution to a specific problem through discussions, voicing contradictions, critical consideration of different points of view.

Despite the differences in content, volume and other specifics of writing, all genres of academic writing have a common feature – accuracy, clarity and consistency in the presentation of the material.

 Features of Academic Writing in English

The English academic style differs significantly from other styles in that it is considered to be more complex and structured. However, you can master it if you know basic English and follow certain rules. The structure of the narrative must be observed:

  • Introduction – a clear and short disclosure of the topic in order to bring the reader up to date;
  • The main part is a retelling of existing information on the topic under study and the presentation of your own vision of the problem (this can be a literary review, discussion, consideration of an illustrative example);
  • Conclusion – the formulation of conclusions, prospects and forecasts for the further development of the issue under study.

Sometimes researchers include additional sections in their work: content, bibliography, applications, links, words of gratitude.

  • In addition, other requirements must be met:
  • The idea that the author wants to convey to the reader is clearly formulated, and after reading the topic is fully disclosed so that there are no questions left.
  • The main idea of ​​the scientific work is confirmed by facts, arguments.
  • The text is faceless, there are no pronouns “I”, “we”.
  • Suggestions are easy to understand and understand the first time.
  • The work is written in a certain font (most often Times New Roman, size 12, but different educational institutions put forward their own requirements).
  • The rules of grammar, spelling, punctuation is strictly observed. Spatial reflections that are not relevant to the topic are missing.
  • The text is unique, any work is checked for plagiarism, so they write it in their own words, and quotes are drawn up according to the rules with a link to the author.
  • Citations and references to the work of other scientists are only welcome, but they are used appropriately so that the reader understands the purpose for which the quotation or reference is provided. This demonstrates the author’s ability to conduct complex research and extract the essence from other works.

In academic writing, it is imperative to observe the scientific or scientific-journalistic style, any information should be supported by links to research of other authors working in this direction. You cannot use abbreviations without decoding them, common words and jargon, long and illogical sentences.

 7 Top Tips for Beginners

For those who are just learning what academic writing is and how to master its skills, there are some useful guidelines:

  • Take courses in academic writing. You can practice teaching style when writing scientific papers, but it is much more effective and faster to complete training in special courses. You don’t have to go to classes, there are many distance learning programs that you can study on your own at home.
  • Learn to write by observing all the rules of grammar. The ability to correspond in English does not mean knowledge of the academic style, because it is important to follow all grammar rules here.
  • Use the stylistic grammar guide. In addition to standard grammar rules, academic writing involves adherence to style standards. Special guides will help you study them, which describe the rules for setting capital letters, formatting quotes and links, lists of literary sources.
  • Learn by example. Not only regular writing practice, but also reading the scientific works of other scientists will help you quickly master the style of presentation. After reading a few articles, it will be easier to understand what academic writing is.
  • Plan and train. You should start working on the text with preparation. It is necessary to draw up a plan according to which a scientific work will be written, it can be in the form of an outline, a list, a diagram. It’s not superfluous to write a draft and then edit it until an excellent result is achieved. You can ask the supervisor for help to check the work and indicate comments.
  • Formulate the main idea, back it up with facts. The main position is in any scientific work, this is the key idea around which the work is built. The author formulates the statement and proves its correctness in the text.
  • Receive feedback on work. Having written an article, abstract or other scientific work, it is useful to give the material to classmates, colleagues, teachers to read. A fresh look will help you see typos, errors, and other remarks that are invisible to the author.


Every aspiring or established scholar who wants to achieve recognition in the international scientific community should know what academic writing is. This is a special style of presentation that is used in scientific papers and is distinguished by the observance of certain rules for the structure, content, design and other requirements.

It is important to study the academic style for graduate students, teachers and aspiring scientists engaged in science and submitting their work to international journals, and the acquired skill will be useful not only in science, but also in work.

Great importance is attached to the consistency and consistency of the narrative; the presence of grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors is unacceptable. When studying English academic writing, regular practice, teaching grammar and stylistic rules is important.


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